What is the difference between Linear and Binary Search?
The main differences between linear search and binary search are as follows:

Search Space:

Linear Search: In linear search, the entire collection is traversed sequentially from start to end until the target element is found or the end of the collection is reached.
 Binary Search: Binary search requires the collection to be sorted in ascending or descending order. It divides the search space in half at each step, focusing on the left or right half of the collection based on the comparison with the target element.

Time Complexity:

Linear Search: Linear search has a time complexity of O(n), where n is the size of the collection. In the worst case, the algorithm may need to traverse the entire collection to find the target element.
 Binary Search: Binary search has a time complexity of O(log n), where n is the size of the collection. It quickly eliminates half of the search space at each step, resulting in efficient searching for large collections.

Sorted Requirement:

Linear Search: Linear search can be applied to both sorted and unsorted collections.
 Binary Search: Binary search requires the collection to be sorted in ascending or descending order. If the collection is not sorted, binary search cannot be used.

Efficiency:

Linear Search: Linear search is simple to implement but may not be efficient for large collections since it checks each element one by one.
 Binary Search: Binary search is more efficient for large collections as it rapidly narrows down the search space by dividing it in half at each step. However, it requires the collection to be sorted.

Element Distribution:

Linear Search: Linear search does not make any assumptions about the distribution of elements in the collection.
 Binary Search: Binary search assumes that the elements are uniformly distributed and sorted in ascending or descending order.
In summary, linear search is suitable for both sorted and unsorted collections but has a linear time complexity. On the other hand, binary search is efficient for sorted collections but requires the elements to be sorted and has a logarithmic time complexity. The choice between linear search and binary search depends on the characteristics of the collection and the specific requirements of the search.